Thursday, January 24, 2013

PHP: Public, Protected and Private

These three keywords define the visibility of variables.

  • public: visible for both inside and outside
  • protected: visible only to its own methods
  • private: similar to protected, intended to be accessed only by the class who defines it

An Instance

class foo{
   public    $a=1;
   protected $b=2;
   private   $c=3;

   function stampa()
      echo $this->b;
      echo $this->c;
class bar extends foo{
   function __construct(){
      $this->b = 4;
      $this->c = 5;
$A = new foo;
echo $A->a;
$B = new bar;

Here is the output,



  • The version of tested php: 5.3.6-13
  • The instance shows the re-assigning of the private member doesn't make any difference. The inheriting class can not modify private members.
  • The private member is still visible (printed) to the inheriting class.

Wednesday, January 23, 2013

Ubuntu: LAMP Memoir


sudo apt-get install apache2
sudo apt-get install php5 libapache2-mod-php5
sudo apt-get install mysql-server
sudo apt-get install php5-mysql
sudo apt-get install libapache2-mod-auth-mysql

Restarting Service

sudo service apache2 restart
sudo service mysql restart

Interacting with MySQL

mysql -p 
mysql -p db_name < import.sql

Installing phpMyAdmin

sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin

Let Apache know about phpMyAdmin:

sudo gedit /etc/apache2/apache2.conf
Include /etc/phpmyadmin/apache.conf

Use php Mail with PEAR

If you see Failed opening required 'Mail.php', this means pear/Mail is not installed.

sudo php go-pear.phar
sudo pear install Mail
sudo pear install Net_SMTP

Configure that base path be /usr/share/pear so that you don't need to change the include path. On wrong installation, uninstall it this way

sudo pear uninstall pear


After any change, restart service to see effects.

  • Program halts when accessing database: the module php5-mysql may be not installed
  • mysql_connect gives an empty output, this may be caused by a not guaranteed permission. Try use root or update the user with proper privilege.

Tuesday, January 22, 2013

Defining Macros in MathJax

In case of malfunction of other methods, one needs to include macros' configurations separately from another environment configuration. Also use "\\" instead of "\" to escape. For instance,

<script type="text/x-mathjax-config;executed=true">
  tex2jax: {inlineMath: [['$','$'], ['\\(','\\)']]}
      Macros: {
        p :'{\\mathcal{P}}',
        np :'{\\mathcal{NP}}'


$$\p =? \np$$

Effectively Enable MathJax on Blogger

The Cause

Simply adding the javascript code in the template may not work for all bloggers, at least not for me. The reason is that Blogger filters the code one adds into the template and some of configurations are encoded in html entities, thus not functioning at all.

The Working Method

Go to the console, select layout and add a gadget "HTML/Javascript", put the following code inside.

<script type="text/javascript" src="">
extensions: ["tex2jax.js","TeX/AMSmath.js","TeX/AMSsymbols.js"],
jax: ["input/TeX", "output/HTML-CSS"],
tex2jax: {
inlineMath: [ ['$','$'], ["\\(","\\)"] ],
displayMath: [ ['$$','$$'], ["\\[","\\]"] ],
"HTML-CSS": { availableFonts: ["TeX"] }

Make sure this gadget is available globally.

Demo Test

$$\cos x = \frac{e^{ix}+e^{-ix}}{2}$$

Sunday, January 20, 2013

File Permission and Ownership

To show file permission and ownership (owner, group), use

ls -l

For instance,

-rw--w-r-- 1  mzt mzt    37 2013-01-20 08:57
drwxrwxr-x 2  mzt root 4096 2013-01-20 08:57 foo

To change the owner to root

chown root

To change the group to root

chgrp root

File permissions are given as code r (read), w (write), x (execute), d marks it is a directory. There are three classes of codes per file/directory, respectively they are for owner, group, others.

To add execute permission for the owner,

chmod u+x

To set exactly read permission for the others,

chmod o=r

To add both write and execute permission for the group,

chmod g+wx

To remove execute permission for everyone,

chmod a-x

To recursively apply write permission for both the owner and the group on a folder,

chmod -R ug+w foo

Note that performing these modifications may also affect your right on these commands. A non-root user can't modify a file/directory which belongs to root.

Saturday, January 19, 2013

Practical vi Techniques

Although many places have iterated vi common commands, one may still come across with obstacles to maneuver comfortably.
The following is an ongoing list which I consider be worth recording and practicing.
  • Syntax Highlight (update your vim if this is not installed as default):
    sudo apt-get install vim
    :syntax on, :syntax off
  • Undo (one can undo multiple steps with the newer version)
  • Replace (refer advanced regex skills):
  • Search by keyword
  • Go to the first line, last line, head of line, end of line
    1G, G, 0, shift+4
  • Backward or forward by one word
    b, e
  • Go to line n
  • New line with input mode (on next line, on previous line)
    o, shift+o
  • Multiple lines cut-and-paste, copy-and-paste
    ndd+p, nyy+p
  • Copy-and-paste from clipboard (using the shortcut of terminal window)
    ctrl+shift+c, ctrl+shift+v
  • Set line number and unset
    :set nu, :set nu!
  • Save the file often, override even when complaining read-only permission
    :w, :w!

Thursday, January 17, 2013

Rice-Shapiro Theorem

The Rice-Shapiro theorem is thus phrased (due to Mr. Zunino's notes, link ), Given $\mathcal{F}$ is a set of partial recursive functions, i.e. $\mathcal{F} \subseteq \mathcal{R}$. Also $A = \{ n | \varphi_n \in \mathcal{F} \} \in \mathcal{RE}$. Then $$ f \in \mathcal{F} \Leftrightarrow \exists g \subseteq f . \big( \mathsf{dom}(g) \textit{ is finite} \wedge g \in \mathcal{F} \big) $$ It is rewritten in the counter-positive manner to prove $A \notin \mathcal{RE}$.
  • check $A$ is semantically closed
  • ($\Rightarrow$) pick $f \in \mathcal{F}$ s.t. $\nexists g \subseteq f . g \in \mathcal{F} \wedge \mathsf{dom}(g) \textit{ is finite}$
  • ($\Leftarrow$) pick $f \notin \mathcal{F}$ s.t. $\exists g \subseteq f . g \in \mathcal{F} \wedge \mathsf{dom}(g) \textit{ is finite}$

Some examples.

  • $A = \{ n | \mathsf{dom} (\varphi_n) \backslash \mathsf{ran} (\varphi_n) \neq \varnothing \}$
  • $B = \{ n | \mathsf{dom} (\varphi_n) \text{ is finite} \}$
  • $C = \{ n | \mathsf{dom} (\varphi_n) \text{ is infinite} \}$

$A \notin \mathcal{RE}$. By R-S $\Leftarrow$, we provide $g(0)=1 \in \mathcal{F}$, also we scheme $f(0)=1,f(1)=0$, s.t. $g \subseteq f \wedge f \notin \mathcal{F}$, both $f$ and $g$ are finite (let the otherwise case undefined).

$B$ and $C$ are both not $\mathcal{RE}$ (directly from R-S theorem). This says, the set of indices of all finite domain functions are not recursively enumerable. So is the set of indices of all infinite domain ones.

Recursion Theory

To be updated.

  • A set $A \subseteq \mathbb{N}$ is recursive if its characteristic function is computable, noted as $A \in \mathcal{R}$
  • A set $A \subseteq \mathbb{N}$ is recursively enumerable if its semi-characteristic function is computable, noted as $A \in \mathcal{RE}$

Example. Justify the following sets whether they belong to $\mathcal{R}$

  • $A = \{ \mathsf{pair}(max(1000,k),n) | \varphi_n(n) \textit{ halts in } k \textit{ steps} \}$
  • $B = \{ \mathsf{pair}(min(1000,k),n) | \varphi_n(n) \textit{ halts in } k \textit{ steps} \}$

$A \in \mathcal{R}$. Given an input $y$, $n=\mathsf{proj2}(y)$, then $\varphi_n(n)$ halts either within 1000 steps, or $\mathsf{proj1}(y)$ steps, which can be computed.

$B \notin \mathcal{R}$. By contradiction, assume $V_B$ is a verifier. Then We can write a verifier also for $\mathsf{K}$ $$V_{\mathsf{K}} = \begin{cases} 1 & \textit{if } V_B(\mathsf{pair}(y,n))=1 \textit{ for some } 0 \leqslant y \leqslant 1000 \\ 0 & o.w. \end{cases}$$ And $\mathsf{K} \notin \mathcal{R}$ due to diagonalization argument. The trick lies in $A$ and $B$ is that $A$ records the halting step of functions taking over 1000 steps, but $B$ is not.


  • $\pair (n,m) = m + \frac{(n+m)(n+m+1)}{2}$
  • $\projl(\pair(n,m)) = n$

Wednesday, January 16, 2013

Lambda Definability

A set is $\lambda$-definable if a verifier can be written in $\lambda$-calculus

Here is a collection of examples (tbd). $$ A = \{ \# M | \mathbf{\Theta} M =_{\beta\eta} (\lambda x.xx) \} $$ Such $A$ is empty due to the fact that $\forall M. \mathbf{\Theta} M \not \Rightarrow_{\beta\eta}$. Thus $V_A = \mathbf{K} \mathbf{F}$ $$ B = \{ \# M | M \mathbf{T} =_{\beta\eta} M \mathbf{F} \ulcorner M \urcorner \}$$ $$ C = \{ 2^{\#M} \cdot 3^{\#N} | M =_{\beta\eta} N \}$$

Suppose $C$ is $\lambda$-defined by $V_C$, we scheme a set $C' = \{ \#M | M =_{\beta\eta} \mathbf{I} \}$, then it would be defined by

$$ V_{C'} = \lambda n . V_C ( \mathbf{Mul} \, (\mathbf{Exp} \, \mathbf{2} \, n ) \, (\mathbf{Exp} \, \mathbf{3} \, \ulcorner \mathbf{I} \urcorner )) $$

However, $C'$ is not $\lambda$-definable due to Rice's theorem.

Appendix - Common Lambda Terms

  • $\mathbf{\Theta} = (\lambda wf.fww)(\lambda wf.fww)$, $\mathbf{\Theta}$ is a fixed-point combinator, i.e. $\mathbf{\Theta}F =_{\beta\eta} F(\mathbf{\Theta}F)$
  • $\ulcorner M \urcorner$ is the encoding of $M$ in Church numbers.

Determine the Convergence of an Improper Integral of Polynomials with Parameters

The question is as follows, Determine for which $\alpha$ does the integral converge:

$$\int_3^\infty \frac{(x^{\alpha} +1)^{^\frac{2}{3}}}{(x+1)^{\frac{5}{3}}(x+2)} dx$$

For the theory of testing the convergence of integrals, please view the Czech Math Tutor page (link)

We need to utilize a fact on the improper integral of polynomials

\begin{align*} \int_1^\infty \frac{1}{x^p} dx &= \begin{cases} \frac{1}{p-1} &p>1 \\ \infty &o.w. \end{cases} \end{align*}

Here we need to make $\frac{8}{3} - \frac{2\alpha}{3} > 1$ to make our integral converge. Thus $\alpha < \frac{5}{2}$

Saturday, January 12, 2013

LaTeX: Positioning Treaky Footnotes

Footnotes to Paragraph/Section Titles

When you put foonotes in paragraph titles or section titles, you will get complaints from LaTeX. The following fixes this and puts no footnotes in the table of contents.

\paragraph[foo-title]{foo-title \protect\footnote{bar-footnote}}
\section[foo-title]{foo-title \protect\footnote{bar-footnote}}

Footnotes to Captions

\caption[bar-title]{bar-title \footnotemark}
\footnotetext{Here goes your foot note text}